Study Guide for Test 1

Test Date/Time/Place: Week 6, February 12, 2009 from 1 p.m. – 2:40 p.m. in the J102

Coverage: All lectures, assigned readings, guest lectures, lab activities in Weeks 1 – 5.

Format: Short answers and essay

Required: A pen for short answers and essay and UTM student identification card, which will be checked during the test.

Value: 25% of final mark in CCT 205

Key concepts and terms: the following list is intended to assist students to study for the test by focusing attention on important concepts and terminology covered in the first half of the course.

Important Note: the following list does not represent the complete list of terms and concepts that will be covered on test 1. This list is a guide only.

Since we'll be drawing ideas from the first term, here are the notes i made, I hope this helps! Feel free to correct whatever. Input is greatly appreciated!


Study Notes: Test 1
ICT – Information Communication Technology
New Media and Civil Engagement
· New media are information and communication technologies & their associated social contexts, incorporating
· Devices that enable and extend our abilities to communicate with particular focus on new interactive, multimedia communication systems & convergence of advanced telecommunications, computer & broadcasting networks
· Communication activities or practices we use to develop those devices
· Social arrangements or organizations that form around the devices and practices
The Social Web: Redefining the Public Sphere?
· New ways of constructing truth
· Blogs, video blogs, YouTube, My Space
· The sociability of new Web processes are producing new pathways for engagement
· Electronic mobility – horizontal mass media flows
· Blurred distinction between producer and user generated content
· Radical democratization of knowledge; multiple sources and voices
Publics and Counter Publics: Michael Warner (2002)
· The public: “a simple totality of people in a particular realm…. It might be the people organized as a nation, commonwealth, the city, the state, or some other community.”
· “A public is the social space created by the reflexive circulation of discourse”
· A counter public exists when “a dominated group aspires to re-create itself as a [dominant] public and, in doing so, finds itself in conflict not only with the dominant social group, but also with the norms that constitute the dominant culture as a public “
· Cultural, anti-state, anti-market
Technological determinism
Technological Determinism #1
· Belief that technologies have an overwhelming and inevitable power to drive human interaction and social change
· Focus on the effects or impacts of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on users, organizations, society
· Science is driver of technological innovation resulting in improvements in society & progress
Technological Determinism #2
· Belief that ICTs bring transformative shifts in society
· Technology seen as independent causal factor
· Technological imperative combines with idea that people react to and accommodate technological change, but do not try to reverse or redirect it
Technological Determinism #3
· Ian Angell, New Barbarian Manifesto (2000)
· “A ‘brave new world is being forced upon unsuspecting societies by advances in information technology.”
· Technological advances happen automatically & have a life of their own
· There is a logic to technological advances which is outside our control
Social Shaping Perspective: (Lievrouw, 2002)
· Technologies are continuously remade by what users do with them
· New media technologies both shape and are shaped by their social, economic and cultural contexts
· The shaping is “recombinant”= products of continuous hybridization of both existing technologies and innovations in interconnected technical and institutional frameworks
· ICTs are not determined by an independent, inevitable causality or evolutionary process unique to technology
· Designers, users, regulators take advantage of the current state of technological knowledge and recombine technologies and new knowledge to achieve their particular goals
The Information Society: Advocates
· Y. Masuda – Managing in the Information Society (1990)
· Technology drives transformation from industrial to information society
· C. Leadbeater – Living on Thin Air (1999)
· Positive about role of knowledge/ human capital in Information Society; success=new ideas, constant innovation, enterprise
· Toffler et al. The Information Society (1996)
· New technology creates dynamic competition & challenges to old industries and technologies
The Information Society: Critics
· L. Winner – The Information Society (1996)
· Technological changes not novel; false promises of technology
· Frank Webster – Times of Technoculture (1999)
· Darker side – information gathering, documentation, & surveillance = more administrative efficiency, control & maintenance of power
Defining a Network
· More traditional mass media technologies based on large scale production & distribution of messages directed from a few media centres (major cities) out to ‘mass’ audiences
· Smooth & rapid diffusion of information from top of the hierarchy out to the periphery
· Little or no capacity for messages to go the other way = no feedback loop
· Network now means interconnection in which many points or nodes (people, groups, machines, collections of information, organizations) may be created or abandoned on an as needed basis at any location in the system
· Any node can be either a sender or receiver of messages or both
· Nodes = ties that are multiple, intersecting and sometimes redundant
Manuel Castells
· Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies
· Network society is a society where the key social structures and activities are organized around electronically processed information networks. So it's not just about networks or social networks, because social networks have been very old forms of social organization. It's about social networks which process and manage information and are using micro-electronic based technologies
· Diffusion of a networking logic substantially modifies the operation and outcomes in processes of production, experience, power, and culture
· Networks have become the basic units of modern society
· The network society goes further than the information society that is often proclaimed. Castells argues that it is not purely the technology that defines modern societies, but also cultural, economical and political factors that make up the network society
· Influences such as religion, cultural upbringing, political organizations, and social status all shape the network society
· Societies are shaped by these factors in many ways. These influences can either raise or hinder these societies
· Castells puts great importance on the networks and argues that the real power is to be found within the networks rather than confined in global cities
The Network Society: Characteristics (Barney, 2004)
· Presence of digital technologies forming basic infrastructure of social, political & economic practices
· Networks as basic form of human organization and relationships
Attributes of the network society
Attribute #1
· Economic base of network society is informational
· Domination of the generation & distribution of knowledge and information
· Emphasis on continuous technological innovation and flexibility as source of economic growth
Attribute #2
· The economy is organized globally
· Capital, commodities & information not contained within national boundaries
· Regions, cities, firms, individual workers are reconstituted as flexible, temporary networks of varying degrees of power
Attribute #3
· Time and space mediated by technology
· “Timeless time” and “space of flows”
Attribute #4
· Power and powerlessness are a function of access to networks and control over flows
· Networks acts as gatekeepers
· Some networks and nodes are more powerful than others
Attribute #5
· Tension between the abstract perception of being placeless and the concrete desire of people to be grounded in a particular place
· Disjuncture between globalizing technology and local identity
· In response, movements emerge to re-establish the local
Web 1.0
· It is the general term that has been created to describe the Web before the 'bursting of the dot-com bubble' in 2001, which is seen by many as a turning point for the internet

Web 2.0
· Describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity, communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web
· Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web-culture communities and hosted services, such as social-networking sites, video sharing sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies
· Term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to any technical specifications, but rather to changes in the ways software developers and end-users utilize the Web
Essence of Network Technology (D.Barney)
· Mastery of nature
· Rational instrumentality: efficiency of means over worthiness of ends
· Standardization
· Time - space compression (D. Harvey)
· Deterritorialization
· Interactivity and customization
Technology and Society
· Technologies are neutral tools
· Outcomes depend on how technologies are used
· Technology embodies specific values & ways of being in the world
Social constructivism
· Impact of technology determined by the social relations and local conditions that support the technology. Possibility of many different kinds of impacts depending on social interactions
ICTs & Social Transformation
· Popular view of technology as force for societal transformation (Toffler, 1980)
· Technological innovation seen as driver of transformation of core economic/social structures characteristic of capitalist societies for past 2 centuries
· Claim that ICTs are forging new modes of production and shifting economy from industrial to post-industrial model.
· Late 19th century to mid-20th century
· Mass mechanized production
· Standardized goods
· Highly segmented process of production (assembly line)
· Economic restructuring in 1980s to increase flexibility
· Just in time deliveries of special or small batch orders
· Flattening of management hierarchy
Changing Technology /Changing Workplaces
· Machines amplified/ replaced physical labour & increased material production power
· Mass production of goods & transportation of goods
· Factory is production centre
· High mass consumption, manufacturing, motorization
Post Industrial
· Computer/digital technology amplifies mental labour
· Expansion of information , information networks & data banks
· Global work environments, flexible work arrangements
· High mass knowledge creation
Taylorism and Scientific Management (Robins & Webster, 1999)
· Application of engineering principles to the industrial system of production
· Time and motion studies to ensure efficiency
· Standardization
· Factory work to be planned, coordinated, & controlled under expert direction
· Information centralized/controlled in planning departments = potential for surveillance + controlling production process
Changing Labour Market
· Jobs available
· Job security
· Grade 12
· Standard employment
· Wages/salaries
· Routine production services
· In-person services
· Work available
· Work security
· Lifelong learning
· Contract, consulting
· Performance pay
· Symbolic analytic services
The Network Society Castells (1997)
· An informational economy
· Global economy
· Network enterprise
· Transformation of work: flexi-workers
· Social polarization/social exclusion
· Timeless time
· Space of flows
The Network Society Castells (2001)
· Productivity is derived from the application of knowledge
· Networking: capacity to assemble information and distribute it in a flexible, adaptable way aided by IT
· Highly skilled, mobile labour key resource for any company
· Generic versus self programmable labour
Innovation (Castells, 2001)
· Ability to create new products & processes
· Culture of shared information
· Organizational learning
· Territorial concentrations of innovation and production – Silicon Valley
· Industrial economy = mass production, mass consumption economy
· Traditional mass manufacturing factories put out identical objects by the millions
· New economy=demassified production short runs; customized products
· Information & media services=segmented, individualized
The Dual Role of Digital Innovation
  • Digital Innovation plays two important roles in the ‘New Economy’: 1) the labour-saving component of digital innovation refers to the possibility of substituting new digital/robotic technologies for workers; 2) the labour-creating component refers to the direct products and services that are involved in generating these new technologies.
The Labour-saving Role of Digital Innovation
· Companies are always trying to employ the most effective mix of labour and technology. à In brief, when labour is expensive, it becomes more attractive to employ new technologies in order to substitute for the high-cost of workers (and when labour is cheap, it makes sense to produce goods in a labour-intensive way).
The Labour-creating Role of Digital Innovation
While digital technology is being used to replace ‘old’/expensive manufacturing workers, the ‘New Economy’ is centered on knowledge-intensive, R&D services that are needed to design, produce and market these very same digital technologies.
Media Implications: Narrowcasting
· Niche-fixated, small-audience specialty channels
· TiVo – digital recorders that search t.v. schedules & save only programs suiting user’s taste
· Music downloading & iPods with individual play lists
· Blogs & subscriptions to Web services aligned with own beliefs & biases
· Possible that TiVo data on what viewers watch can be used by advertisers to hyper-target advertising to individuals
· Portrayal of personal ego through different available mediums
‘New Economy’: How New?
· Castells: the present economic and social situation is a new age, rather than a continuation of industrial capitalism
· Barney: network society = development of industrial society leaving capitalism intact.
· Barney: network society = supercharged version of capitalism; extension of Taylorism
· What are the continuities & discontinuities between network economy and its predecessor?
Networks & Restructuring of Work
· “Digitization has affected the nature of work performed in the economy as much as the quantity of employment” – Crow and Langford, in Citizenship Studies, 2000
· Organization of work and labour: flexibility versus security
Non-Standard Employment
#1 Flexible workers
· Non-standard forms of employment
· Part-time work
· Temporary work
· ‘Rented worker’ – temp work = one of fastest growing categories of employment in North America & Europe (Naomi Klein, 2000)
Taylorism & Scientific Management
· Industrial capitalism & rise of factory system associated with introduction in scientific management
· Scientific management = direction by engineers, factory planning, time and motion study, standardization, intensive division of labour
· Efficiency in factory production; control over workforce; ‘automatic perfection of routine’
· Information collection and surveillance
Non-Standard Work: #2 Self Employment
· Contracts, consulting, free lance work
· Professionals, small business owners, independent crafts people, trades people
· “Organization man is out. Flexible woman is in.” (Castells, 2001)
· Contingent employment relationships
Non-standard Work: #3 Temporal & Spatial Dislocation
· Temporal dislocation = work not confined to 8 hour day, Monday – Friday work week
· More flex time geared to flow of demands
· Shift work
· Diversification of work time
· Spatial dislocation = home work, call centres, telecommuting
Non-Standard Work: #4 End of Single Occupational Trajectory or Firm
· Decrease in long term job stability in a single firm for entire career
· Projection that in 40 year career, people will revamp skill sets 3 times and change jobs 11 times
· Portfolio workers – people who move from 1 task, contract or project to next developing a network of portable skills, contacts, experiences
Non-standard Work:#5 Lifelong Learning
· Need for constant upgrading
· Maximize flexibility and mobility
· Ensure technological, skill and organizational compatibility with demands of new economy
· Self programmable versus generic labor
Changing Labour Market
· From jobs available to work available
· From job security to work security
· From postsecondary education to life long learning
· From career path of climbing ladder to spiral or lateral paths
· From specialization to multi- skilling
· From hierarchical to flatter organizations
New Employment Trends
· Fewer full time jobs; more contracts, temporary, part-time opportunities
· Expanded team work; more responsibility and accountability at all levels
· More self directed job seekers selling services on job to job basis
· Performance pay; softening in salaries
· Expectation that employees will relocate; more global work environments
Benefits of Non-Standard Work
· Increased work flexibility
· Increased mobility, autonomy & work satisfaction
· Flexibility = condition of job security
· Facilitated increase of women into workplace
Drawbacks to Non-Standard Work
· Uncoupling of work from stable employment and steady income; fewer non-wage benefits
· Job insecurity; hard work + loyalty = ?
· Periodic under or unemployment
· Increased competition rather than solidarity between workers; polarization of workforce
· Social and economic isolation for those working at home
· Shifting of costs of technology, work facilities from firm to individual worker
What’s Missing in New Economy?
· Vertical promotion
· Annual increases
· Long term commitment
· Traditional benefits
Case: High Tech Industries Silicon Valley, California
· “People need to look at themselves as self employed, as vendors who come to this company to sell their skills…In AT&T, jobs are being replaced by projects and fields of work, giving rise to a society that is increasingly jobless but not workless” (Vice President of AT&T, 1996)
· Unstable markets, unstable demand for work
· Pace of change in skill requirements
· Deskilling and skill upgrading tendencies
· Need for continuous improvement, learning & innovation to remain competitive
· Need for reflexivity – workers examine and improve their own work processes to meet changing consumer demands
Changes in IT Employment
· Growth in use of the internet and wireless communications
· Services component of IT increased
· Changes in the manufacturing component.
· Globalization of the IT supply chain has shifted IT manufacturing production to new locations, often overseas, where labor is relatively inexpensive
· A changed landscape?
· How much has new technology changed the world of surveillance?
· What are the impact of these changes?
· Where are we headed?
· Is surveillance a technological issue or is it a question of the management & control of information within and between groups?
What’s new….
· The size of databases.
· Technology that makes data collection and storage easier and cheaper.
· It’s not just the government anymore that collects personal data.
· Confusion about what is and isn’t possible
Digital Technologies & Surveillance
· Greater potential for surveillance
· Increasing exposure of citizens to surveillance
· Increased capacity to store data
· Harvesting of transactional information from credit cards, direct debit exchanges, health & welfare records, electoral registers
· Closed circuit television cameras in urban centers
· Thus, rise of information society = rise of a surveillance society
David Lyon Surveillance Society (2001)
· Digitization magnify surveillance functions
· Extension of earlier spheres of monitoring and control
· Hyper surveillance
· Computerization enhances and alters social processes
· Within government
· Within bureaucracies
· Within the economy
Robins & Webster: Times of Technoculture (1999)
· ‘Information Revolution’: no more than an intensification of processes set in motion when Scientific Management became the watch word of corporate capitalism
Giddens on Surveillance
· Surveillance =control of information and superintendence of the activities of some groups by others
· Information gathering & storage key to state in its planning and control functions
· Regularized gathering, storage and control of information = crucial for administrative efficiency & maintaining power
· High level of surveillance associated with totalitarian rule (Anthony Giddens, The Nation State & Violence, 1985)
Surveillance and Control
· Taylor (1947): scientific management = form of control of production process & workers in modern corporate capitalism
· Mass production & mass consumption regulated through efficiency requiring management of info.
· Sloan at GM in 1920s: birth of modern marketing based on collection, aggregation & dissemination of information
· Attempt to manage consumption through collection and processing of data on consumer behavior
· Personal data are used to sort populations into consuming types
· Sloanism marked the beginning of post-Fordist era, when marketing began to dominate the process of production.
· GM’s method of marketing became a worldwide model by which business could create and nourish demand. Sloanism continues to be essential to the workings of the late-capitalist economy.
· In the Post-Fordist era society is no longer structured in terms of classes that are determined with respect to labour and production. Now society is structure in terms of consumer classes, i.e now its not where you work but where you shop that determines your place within the social structure.
Michel Foucault Discipline and Punishment (1979)
· Key figure in surveillance studies
· Knowledge & power always conjoined
· Never innocent knowledge; always an expression of power relationships
· “Discipline and Punishment: the Birth of the Prison (1979)
· Traces shift from punishment to discipline, from public executions (spectacle) to rehabilitation demanding need for information about crime, criminals & circumstances of crime = more need for records in & outside of prison & new forms of recording
**Bentham’s Panopticon**
· Prison design based on the theory of observing without being observed. In this case, the guards being the observers and the prisoners being the observed.
Questions on Panopticon
· How does Bentham's panopticon work to control behavior?
· How does the informational panopticon affect individual liberty?
· How do big databases that track consumer behavior contribute to the loss of liberty and/or privacy?
· How does a loss of privacy impact our freedom to act spontaneously?
· How are privacy- reducing initiatives sold to the public?
Panopticon #1
· New prison regime = need for continuous surveillance
· New spatial and social organization of power
· Bentham’s Panopticon = architectural design for prisons which allowed many to be watched by a few who could not be seen
· Live with knowledge that prisoners could be subject to continuous observation
Panopticon #2
· Induces in prisoner a state of conscious and permanent visibility assuring automatic power
· Constant observing of prisoner by inspector
· Prisoner knows himself to be observed or can be observed at every/any moment
· Panopticon = epitome of social control; paradigm of modern discipline
Jeremy Bentham
· Bentham was a lawyer and social activist with an agenda to improve the lives of the powerless in his culture.
· Seeking to improve upon the abhorrent prison conditions that predominated in Britain at the time, Bentham designed the panopticon as the modern model for a rehabilitative prison.
· The general idea behind the design is that prisoners are distributed around a centrally located watch tower.
· Prisoners were able to view the tower and knew they were being watched (which theoretically should have induced behavioral changes) while the guards surveyed all of the prisoners easily from the tower.
· A secondary benefit for the prisoners was an opportunity to be in an isolated environment that provided time for contemplation of the behavior that brought them to prison.
· Bentham's Panopticon at the periphery, a building; at the centre, a tower
· Tower is pierced with wide windows that open onto the inner side of the ring; the building is divided into cells, each of which extends the whole width of the building; they have two windows, one on the inside, the other, on the outside, allows the light to cross the cell from one end to the other.
· All that is needed, then, is to place a supervisor in a central tower and to enclose in each cell a condemned person
· By the effect of backlighting, one can observe from the tower, standing out precisely against the light, the small captive shadows in the cells of the periphery.
· Hence the major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.
· Unverifiable: the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at t any one moment; but he must be sure that he may always be so.
· In order to make the presence or absence of the inspector unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham envisaged not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, in order to pass from one quarter to the other, not doors but zig zag openings; for the slightest noise, a gleam of light, a brightness in a half-opened door would betray the presence of the guardian.
· The Panopticon is a machine for dissociating the see/being seen dyad: in the peripheral ring, one is totally seen, without ever seeing; in the central tower, one sees everything without ever being seen
· The practice of placing individuals under 'observation' is a natural extension of a justice imbued with disciplinary methods and examination procedures. Is it surprising that the cellular prison, with its regular chronologies, forced labour, its authorities of surveillance and registration, its experts in normality, who continue and multiply the functions of the judge, should have become the modern instrument of penality?
· Is it surprising that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, hospitals, which all resemble prisons?
Michel Foucault
· Panopticon, a single guard can watch over many prisoners while the guard remains unseen
· The dark dungeon of pre-modernity has been replaced with the bright modern prison, but Foucault cautions that "visibility is a trap"
· It is through this visibility, Foucault writes, that modern society exercises its controlling systems of power and knowledge (terms which Foucault believed to be so fundamentally connected that he often combined them in a single hyphenated concept, "power-knowledge")
· Increasing visibility leads to power located on an increasingly individualized level, shown by the possibility for institutions to track individuals throughout their lives. Foucault suggests that a "carceral continuum" runs through modern society, from the maximum security prison, through secure accommodation, probation, social workers, police, and teachers, to our everyday working and domestic lives. All are connected by the (witting or unwitting) supervision (surveillance, application of norms of acceptable behaviour) of some humans by others
Panopticon as Metaphor
· Wave of new information and communications technologies are allowing the development of an ‘electronic panopticon’
· People are monitored by unseen forces, often automated, more than ever before
Sources of Surveillance Data
· Banks & data marketers collect data from transactions & web surfing
· Retailers collect data on every transaction
· Government agencies collect data from tax returns, property tax records & voting records
· Employer records including keylogging software for all computers connected to a company network (on/off site; wired/wireless)
· University networks use keylogging software
· Internet surfing records kept by your ISP
· Public records
· Public private video cameras
Location of surveillance: you
· Trojan Horse - malware that performs malicious functions that allow unauthorized users to access the host computer
· More than 5% of executable files are spyware.
· One in 62 internet sites contain “drive by download” attacks.
· Games, celebrity sites, and illegal sites most likely to contain spyware.
· University of Washington study, 2006
Spyware: The Trojan Horse
· Beware of ancient Greeks bearing gifts during siege of Troy
· Something that appears good, but conceals something harmful
Computer Trojan Horse
· A computer trojan horse = a program which appears to be something good, but actually conceals something bad.
· Spread by hiding it inside a distribution of normal software.
· In 2002, the sendmail and OpenSSH packages were both used to hide trojan horses. This was done by an attacker who broke into the distribution sites for these software packages and replaced the original distributions with his own packages.
· A more common method of spreading a trojan horse is to send it via e-mail. The attacker will send the victim an e-mail with an attachment called something like "prettygirls.exe." When the victim opens the attachment to see the pretty girls, the trojan horse will infect his system.
· A similar technique for spreading trojan horses is to send files to unsuspecting users over chat systems like IRC, AIM, ICQ, MSN, or Yahoo Messenger.
Slippery Slopes…
· At a high-tech prison opening Feb. 2006, inmates wear electronic wristbands that track their every movement and guards monitor cells using emotion recognition software. – BBC, 2006
RFID: Radio Frequency Identification
· Automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders rs.
· Purchaser may not be aware of RFID or able or able to remove it
· Tag can be read at a distance without consent – beyond sightline of reader
· Can be used almost anywhere as an identification system: passports, food, pets, clothing with simple info or complex instructions
Network sniffers: Carnivore
· Definition: Carnivore is a "network diagnostic tool" created by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to assist in crime investigations. It is a secure computer platform running Windows/NT or Windows 2000 and application software developed by the FBI.
· Carnivore has drawn special attention, however, because of the large amount of Internet traffic it is capable of capturing.
· The FBI typically installs Carnivore in an ISP data center when investigating individuals suspected of federal crimes such as terrorism.
· Carnivore snoops essentially all data flowing through the network and saves the bits that fit a specific profile -- email sent or received from a particular user name, for example, or all data sent to Web sites from a particular IP address. Although the data of many other uninvolved people on the Net may flow through the Carnivore system, the FBI claims that the privacy of this data will not be compromised.
Drive by Downloads
· Drive-by downloading is a catch-all name for software downloaded on your computer without your knowledge or intervention.
· Drive-by downloads sneak onto computers without the user’s knowledge or permission.
· Some of the most common drive-by download carriers are songs from free music share sites, free screensavers, etc. Many of these install spyware that monitors your surfing habits, and then displays pop-ups that match your habits.
· Example, if you invest a good chunk of your Internet time cruising sport sites, the spyware detects this, and it could then splash sporting apparel ads on your monitor.
· Drive-by downloads can also attack your computer through e-mail spam
Frank Webster
· He has resisted the view that the Information Society is radically new, insisting on the primacy of continuities and consolidations of established trends
· Conceives today’s ‘informational capitalism’ as a development from corporate capitalism and, before that, laissez-faire (let it be) capitalism, that advances principles of market society such as private ownership, competition, profitability, commodification, ability to pay, and the centrality of wage labour
· Often draws attention to the darker sides of informational developments, especially the military dimensions. He has adopted the concept of Information War to examine the changing information environment of recent wars
Saul Alinsky
· Alinsky came up with the idea of power analysis, which looks at relationships built on self-interest between corporations, banks and utilities
· Alinsky championed new ways to organize the poor and powerless that created a backyard revolution in cities across America
· Founder of modern community organizing
Alinsky's twelve rules of power
1. Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have.
2. Never go outside the experience of your people.
3. Wherever possible go outside of the experience of the enemy.
4. Make the enemy live up to their own book of rules.
5. Ridicule is man's most potent weapon.
6. A good tactic is one that your people enjoy.
7. A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag.
8. Keep the pressure on.
9. The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself.
10. The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition.
11. If you push a negative hard and deep enough it will break through into its counterside.
12. The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative.
13. Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it.
10 Principles of Social Media
· Social media principles are attempting to boil down the core lessons that social media has taught us; applied in a technology neutral way to the rest of our lives and in business
· Establish networks and understand our place in them à help us build better communities and working relationships, help us communicate and relate better
1. Associations are inherently good - Knowing more people expands opportunity and conversation
2. Information wants to be free - Free society runs on free information. Information hoarding is the enemy of discourse and growth
3. Economies have currencies - All economies trade on specialized currencies.
4. Decentralization is freedom - Decentralized power structures spur creativity, growth, and innovation
5. Rules beget rules - The more rules you have, the more rules you make
6. Karma is real - You give more, you get more
7. Context is Fluid - How you view an object today will be different tomorrow. Don't destroy tomorrow's value
8. Immediacy in all things - Strike while the iron is hot. Eat when the food is fresh.
9. Communication is blood - Communication is the river upon which information flows
10. Findability is power - Unfindable information or people are irrelevant

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*The following are terms and concepts that will be covered on test 1*
[Lets try and start with defining these as a group -
I will start a discussion group thread, under this page,
and if we can all do this as a group! it will help everyone ]-- mona87 mona87
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PLEASE READ BELOW THE RED LINEi have started posting what has been posted in discussion and what i got in to a wiki
page please feel free to use edit and add to list

Please edit this page and difine the terms below !! Thanks :)
(bold letters for already defined terms)

The terms below have already been defined (thanks to the students in our class), click here and you will find the list! - mona87 mona87


i had already started a discussion for this pg for the terms, and someone later had also started something else..
its okay!.. as long as we have all the inofrmation, thatz wat matters
no need to get upset! =)
good luck
- mona87 mona87

It was useful! thanks so much!

Attributes of the network society - information base, knowledge workers, global, flexible
Technological determinism - technology is the driving change of society (technology= independent causal factor)
Social shaping perspective - technologies are continuously remade by what users do with them. Shaping is "recombinant"
Web 1.0 and 2.0 - Web 1.0 = an information source, one to many, Web 2.0 = participation platform, sharing, communities, interactive, networked, many to many
Richard Florida’s creative class - An emergent class in the work force consisting of knowledge workers, intellectuals, and various types of artists
3 Media paradigms - interpersonal media, mass media, and new media
Toronto transit camp - Toronto unconference --> transit users come to share ideas how to make the TTC better (participate and collaborate, not complain.)
Open creative communities
Engagement pyramid - visitors, particpants, creators and collaborators
Information society
Fordism - assembly lines, mass production, standardization
Post-fordism - restructuring to increase flexibility, customization, just-in-time deliveries, flattening of management hierarchies
Instrumentalism - technology is a neutral tool, uses determined by users
Substantivism - technology embodies specific values and ways of being in the world
Social constructivism- the impact of technology determined by the social relation and local conditions that support the technology
Time space compression - time and space are shortened due to information technologies (time/space dislocation)
Deterritorialization: To undo territory that has been established.
Manuel Castells - information economy, global economy, network enterprise, flexible workers, social polarization, timeless time, space of flows
Michel Foucault- critic of social institutions, rejected the post-structuralist and postmodernist labels.
Frank Webster - critic of the information society, sees the darker side (e.g. surveillance/control)
Saul Alinsky
Characteristics of new economy - eCommerce (online shopping), global, customization, work anywhere/anytime, flttening of management hierarchy, special/small batch orders "just in time"
Robotics - robots replacing human labour, e.g. automotive industry
Comparison of industrial and information society
Network enterprise
Generic labour - standard labour, just has the skills from training, no ability to upgrade or acquire new skills
Self programmable labour
Restructuring of work and employment in new economy - end of single occupational firm for career, more flexibility vs. security, temporary workers, contract work, time and space dislocation
Flexible production and management models in new economy
Non-standard employment - tasks (no defined space), contractual, temporary, changing, consulting, lifelong learning, performance pay (vs. salary & bonuses), symbolic analytic service (vs. routine production service)
IT trends in Silicon Valley - hub of technology but companies reinforcing idea that workers are disposable and can be replaced
Temporal and spatial dislocation of work
Portfolio workers - workers move from one temporary job to another, e.g. contract to contract, forming a series a portable skills, experiences etc...
Taylorism - applies engineering principles to production, time and motion studies to increase efficiency e.g. how many parts can be produced in an hour
Sloanism - data collection for maketing purposes (form of surveillance)
Sources of surveillance data
**Bentham’s Panopticon**
- a prison design based on the theory of observing without being observed. In this case, the guards being the observers and the prisoners being the observed.
RFID - radio frequency identification device, used throughout the world in things like the tag on clothing from department stores. Often associated with "big brother" watching, they can be used to store personal information like spending habits, as well as have the ability to track locations of the device.
**Trojan horse**
- malware that performs malicious functions that allow unauthorized users to access the host computer
**Drive by downloads**
Online advocacy