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Test 2

Description/
Format

Covers all course material from week 6 on, including course readings, lectures and labs.
However, relevant content from the first half of the course may be on the test too.

Format - Same as last time. Short answers and a (choice of) essay question.

Weight
20%
Date
Week 13, April 9, 2009 in lecture from 1 p.m. – 2:40 p.m. in the J102



Topics
  1. New Media, New Politics?
  2. Network Technologies and Democracy
  3. Technology and Culture: The Rise of Robots
  4. Technology: the New Media and Identity
  5. Digital divides
  6. Course Summary: The Consequences of Communication Technology
Professor G. Benick and Professor M. Jones




Study Guide for Test 2

Coverage: Students are expected to be able to demonstrate a comprehensive (Just to emphasize that the test is now covering all information from the beginning of the semester) understanding of the material covered in lectures, assigned readings and guest lectures with a focus on material covered in Weeks 7 – 11.
Format: Short answers and essay question.
Required: A pen for short answers and essay question. Your UTM student identification card will be checked before you leave the testing area.
Key concepts and terms: the following list is intended to assist students to study for the test by focusing attention on important concepts and terminology covered in this course.
Important Note: the following list does not represent the complete list of terms and concepts that will be covered on test2. This list is a guide only.










Please feel free to add notes on topics highlighted in red ! :)






Test 2 Focus: Weeks 7 – 11




Advocacy and public relations campaigns: goals and process.

Advocacy Campaigns are about having the intention of creating change.
- The Goal: To engage the public to help bring about the change you want
- How? 1) Craft your message. 2) Persuade people to care. 3) Ask them to join you in making change.
- 1) Crafting: Decide what people need to know about your issue in order to agree to the changes you are campaigning for
- 2) Pick something that will effect them directly, and will get the message through.
- 3) Ask them to join by applying pressure --> What do decision makers care about? (e.g. politicians care about getting votes, corporations care about making money, the public has a variety of interests)


Public relations

- the practice of managing the flow of information between an organization and its publics. (e.g. getting the word out)
- gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment.
- because public relations places exposure in credible third-party outlets, it offers a third-party legitimacy that advertising does not have.Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with the press, and employee communication; therefore it is often called earned media.
- hope that members of the media will come and write a story of that event/idea therefore earning the right to be in that editorial hence the name earned media






Astro Boy
external image astroboy1.jpg

  • Astro Boy is a science fiction manga series set in a futuristic world wherein androids co-exist with humans. Its focus is on the adventures of "Astro Boy" (sometimes called simply "Astro"), a powerful robot created by the head of the Ministry of Science, Doctor Tenma, to replace his son Tobio, who died in a car accident.
  • Astro shown fighting crime, evil, and injustice. Most of his enemies were robot-hating humans, robots gone berserk, or alien invaders.
  • Almost every story included a battle involving Astro and other robots.
  • First to establish anime aesthetic

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Doraemon
external image doraemon1.jpg
Most famous manga character in all of Japan is Doraemon - equivalent of Mickey Mouse in the U.S.
Doraemon and his namesake series symbolize to many the foibles and adventures of childhood.
Children's manga (later a TV-series) about a boy named Nobi Nobita who is so unlucky, weak and lazy that his descendants had to send the family robot back in time to help him out.
That robot is Doraemon (where the "Dora" is presumably based on the word "dora-neko," or stray cat), and his four-dimensional pocket produces any number of futuristic gadgets and devices meant to help Nobita become something other than a complete failure in adulthood.
Though smart and caring, Doraemon has his own foibles, and his partnership with Nobita produces both triumphs and disasters



Avatars
external image avetar-thumb.png?w=367&h=512
computer user's representation of himself/herself or alter ego, whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games, a two-dimensional icon (picture) used on Internet forums and other communities or instant messaging programs


Blogs:
Blogs today are very important, often they reflect public opinions and provide the readers with potential new information and allow for the discussion of issues.
How to measure the effectiveness of a blog:

  • Who looks at them?
  • Who clicks on them?
  • How long do they look at the blog site?
  • How many different blogs are talking about the same thing?
  • How does it compare to its competitors.
    • Example: A blog site talking about Barack Obama's campaign, many other blogs talking about it as well- this shows the importance and even popularity of Obama (people are clicking on the links and reading about him). compare how many blog sites talk about McCain--Little=little effectiveness.


Barriers to accessing interactive communication technologies
1. Income & affordability

  • Corporation giants like Microsoft use the power of compatibility and software to act as barriers to use specific programs. These softwares can be very costly

2. Evolution of the technologies

  • Technology is always changing and often new technologies build on the previous ones, if you dont have the foundations it is hard to catch up

3. Falling prices

  • perhaps because of the theory that every piece of technology will either expand to include 2X the amound of space or decrease by 2X the price....so the theory is applied in that technology loses value quickly and we constantly need to update our products and those who are unable to will fall behind

4. Social norms

  • This one im not so sure...but I would say wikispaces fosters a collaborative environment and lets say if someone does not believe in the idea of collaborative thoughts and is against conforming to this idea then they will not engage and thus the idea acts as a barrier to those who have opposing social ideas
Necessity of ICTs vs other societal needs (eg. food, water, education, etc.)
Like the example from class as well, in regards to social norms, low income families might not partake in ICT interaction as their friends/family also do not have access, so even if one person has a computer and Internet access, they may not feel like they have anyone to communicate with, or they may not use the Internet for the same purposes.
Example: Social Norms of eldery - An old lady probably won't ask her other old lady friend for her MSN because it's not the norm for old people to use certain online technologies.




Campaign Planning
• objective - What is the campaign aiming for ?
• goals - What are the main changes this campaign is focusing on
• audience - Who should this campaign aim for?
• key messages - What is the key change we want to bring to the society
• strategy - What are the ways to achieve our goals
• tactics - How do we implement our strategy to reach our goals
• measurement - Statistics


Cluetrain Manifesto
book about communication and business that included 95 theses on the changes in marketing
"A powerful global conversation has begun, throught the internet, people are discovering and inventing new ways to share relevant information with binding speed. As a direct result, markets are getting smarter - and getting smarter then most companies"
  • "Internet is a conversation that empowers voice" (Lecture 8 Slide 26)
http://indigitalmarketing.com/2008/12/21/the-cluetrain-manifesto/

Theses 1 – 6: Markets are Conversations
Historically, the authors state, the marketplace was a location where people gathered and talked to each other (thesis 1): they would discuss available products, price, reputation and in doing so connect with others (theses 2-5.) The authors then assert that the internet is providing a means for anyone connected to the internet to re-enter such a virtual marketplace and once again achieve such a level of communication between people. This, prior to the internet, had not been available in the age of mass media (thesis 6.)
Thesis 7: Hyperlinks Subvert Hierarchy
The ability of the internet to link to additional information – information which might exist beyond the formal hierarchy of organizational structure or published material from such an organization – acts as a means of subverting, or bypassing, formal hierarchies.
Theses 8-13: Connection between the new markets and companies
The same technology connecting people into markets outside of organizations, is also connecting employees within organizations (thesis 8.) The authors suggest that these networks create a more informed marketplace/consumer (thesis 9) through the conversations being held. The information available in the marketplace is superior to that available from the organizations themselves (thesis 10-12.)
The authors, through the remaining theses, then examine the impact that these changes will have on organizations and how, in turn, organizations will need to respond to the changing marketplace to remain viable.
Theses 14 – 25: Organizations entering the marketplace
With the emergence of the virtual marketplace, the authors indicate that the onus will be on organizations to enter the marketplace conversation (thesis 25) and do so in a way that connects with the ‘voice’ of the new marketplace (thesis 14-16) or risk becoming irrelevant (thesis 16).
Theses 26 - 40: Marketing & Organizational Response
The authors then list a number of theses that deal with the approach that they believe organizations will need to adopt if they are to successfully enter the new marketplace (thesis 26) as it is claimed that those within the new marketplace will no longer respond to the previously issued mass-media communications as such communication is not ‘authentic’ (thesis 33.)
Theses 41 - 52: Intranets and the impact to organization control and structure
More fully exploring the impact of the intranet within organizations, theses forty-one through fifty-two elaborate on the subversion of hierarchy initially listed as thesis seven. When implemented correctly (theses 44-46), it is suggested that such intranets re-establish real communication amongst employees in parallel with the impact of the internet to the marketplace (thesis 48) and this will lead to a 'hyperlinked' organizational structure within the organization which will take the place of (or be utilized in place of) the formally documented organization chart (thesis 50).
Theses 53 - 71: Connecting the Internet marketplace with corporate Intranets
The ideal, according to the manifesto, is for the networked marketplace to be connected to the networked intranet so that full communication can exist between those within the marketplace and those within the company itself (thesis 53.) Achieving this level of communication is hindered by the imposition of ‘command and control’ structures (thesis 54-58) but, ultimately, organizations will need to allow this level of communication to exist as the new marketplace will no longer respond to the mass-media ‘voice’ of the organization (theses 59-71)
Theses 72 - 95: New Market Expectations
Theses seventy-two through ninety-five aim to identify the expectations (theses 76, 77, 78, 95) and changes (thesis 72) that exist within the new marketplace and how those expectations and changes will require a corresponding change from organizations (theses 79, 84, 91, 92, 94).
From Wikipedia



Connectivity by demographic groupings
-Variables of interest: income, education, age, gender, geographical location.
-Each of these results in the delineation of different groupings of people, with different size and other characteristics.


Cyberbalkanization
political discussions on Net that lead to fragmentation and polarization rather than consensus
Net gives people access to a large number of news sources, but also lets them pinpoint the ones they agree with and ignore the rest


  • Echo Chamber: Metaphorically, the term echo chamber is any situation in which information, ideas or beliefs are amplified or reinforced by transmission inside an "enclosed" space (mentioned in Lecture 8 slide 25)

  • Came across a website with some talk on cyberbalkaniazation: maybe it can help explain the topic... have a look *
http://philosoraptor.blogspot.com/2004/02/ten-short-arguments-about.html



David Plouffe
American political strategist, chief campaign manager for Barack Obama's 2008 Presidential campaign
Plouffe was the mastermind behind a winning strategy
Plouffe's control over the internal workings of the Obama campaign successfully avoided the publicly aired squabbles that frequently trouble other campaigns
Plouffe divided the states into 16 different campaigns
In every campaign he had different sectors and strategies



Definition and types of digital divide
1. Access based on the difference between individuals with access and those without access to ICTs
Focus on Infrastructure:
- Possibility/difficulty of having computers available that are connected to the worldwide net
- Issues involving servers, hardware and software.
2. Usage based on individuals who know how to use these technologies and those who do not
Focus on Resource Usage:
- Limitation/possibility that people have to use the resources and information available on the Web.
- New modes of online education, business, medical servicing, telework, entertainment and leisure
3. Usage quality based on the differences between those same users
Focus on Capacity Building:
- The difference related to the skills and capacities to adequately use the technology and not only the possibility of having a computer available
- Development of digital literacy






Networked governance
distribution of select government functions
decentralization and democratization of governance
policy consulting
service delivery
regulation of standards
program implementation
- democratization of information
- public officials using social media



5 dimensions of digital inequality
Equipment: hardware, software & connections
Autonomy of use: work or home; monitored or not, compete for time or not
Skill
Social support
Purposes for which the technology is employed


Identity in the information age
Identity correlates to reputation and trust, and the construction of a good identity will translate into successful online experience.
Online Identity is also less and less virtual in its consequences
People spending increasing amount of their time online & online time is an increasingly important part of their real life, when it is not colliding directly with their off-line life


Robot Culture in Japan
Japan's robot culture emphasizes technologies that are no longer just meant to do things for humans, but also do things to and for humans
Robots as social entities are expected to fulfill new roles as companions, care takers, " natural" interaction partners, and mediators between humans and the technical environment.
robots are not only designed for utilitarian purposes, but to function "the same as flowers-something that speaks directly to the soul"
Japan is known as the "robot kingdom" first through its domination of the industrial robot market.


  • development of robot culture in Japan also related to societal factors such as the aging populationa nd low birth rates



Industrial robots
Japan's political and economic emphasis on advanced technologies also depended on the societal structure to support such developments
The Japanese blue-collar working class has always been small, never constituting more than a third of the workforce, so a working-class identity like that in the West did not develop
Japanese industrial paternalism and lifetime employment policies assured that workers would not lose their jobs as a result of workplace automation, but would be given work elsewhere in the firm
While protecting the male worker, the social structure of Japan supported the techno-nationalist dream at the expense of certain parts of the population, particularly women and the illegal foreign workforce, which could be hired and fired at will and bore the brunt of economic fluctuations








Internet and Social Networking Sites


Growth of Social Networking sites
- By mid-2004 there were over 200 social networking sites, including Friendster, Linkedln, Ryse, orkut, ZeroDegrees, Meetup, Tickle and NeoSociety, Facebook, Twitter
- In these communities, an initial set of founders sends out messages inviting members of their own persona;l networks to join the site. New members repeat the process, growing the total number of members and links in the network.
- Sites then offer features such as automatic address book updates, viewable profiles, the ability to form new links through introduction services, and other forms of online social connections.

  • Internet allows people to establish trust accross national boundaries
  • social networking sites especially micro blogging is new so hard to see their long term impact
  • enhance existing relationships
  • networks allow us to engage in new spaces change the way we think, the form of our communities and they change our identities.



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Increased use of social networking
In December 2008 more people logged on to a so-called member community websites on the internet than they did an email service, according to Nielsen online, a research company that monitors internet usage around the globe
During December 2008, there were 242 million unique visitors to social networking sites and 236 million to email sites around the world


Internet usage by demographic groupings
Internet use declines dramatically with age
Over 90% of teenagers use the Net
Less than 5% for individuals 70 years & older
Access opportunities
Skill
Perceived needs
Attitudes and overall lifestyles


New informational environment for political engagement
More intensive and extensive than old media
Political information ‘captured’ in multiple spaces created by new communication technologies i.e. email, internet sources, video

· New politics is a struggle over info & perception management & control in wide range of media sources
· Oppositional political formations outside of mainstream politics
·
Novel forms of direction political action:
o Mass email campaigns, electronic petitions, parody sites





Optimists and pessimists with respect to the digital divide
Optimistsàbelieve that convergence and the emergence of more user-friendly technology will diminish the impact of the digital divide going forward
Pessimistsàquestion the assumptions of the optimists i.e. believe that convergence and more technology will only widen the gap



Second Life
It is a virtual world developed by Linden Lab that launched on June 23,2003 and is accessible via the internet
A free client program, allows its users, called Residents, to interact with each other through Avatars
Residents can explore, meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and trade virtual property etc.
caters for users aged over eighteen
Second life has internal currency, the Linden Dollar (L$), it can be used to buy, sell, rent or trade
Services include "Camping", wage labor, business management etc.

Does not have a designated objective, nor traditional game play mechanics or rules
Vast majority of users use Second Life primarily as an entertainment medium



Social media
The democratization of information, transforming people from content readers into content publishers. It is the shift from a broadcast mechanism to a many-to-many model, rooted in conversations between authors, people, and peers.
For example, Blogs - which allow users to post contents online for viewing


  • Social media uses the “wisdom of crowds” to connect info in a collaborative manner.
  • Forms of Social Media:
    • Internet forums, message boards, weblogs, wikis, podcasts, pictures and video
  • Examples of social media applications:
    • Google (reference, social networking), Wikipedia (reference), MySpace (social networking), Facebook (social networking), Lastfm. (personal music), YouTube (social networking and video sharing), Second Life (virtual reality), and Flickr (photo sharing).
  • Purpose of Social Media:
    • Develop community
    • Broadcast and amplify a particular perspective
    • Help with product/candidate development
    • Get feedback
    • Create content
    • Create peer relationships between candidate, party and voters
    • Foster communication and increase trust






Test 2: Demonstrate understanding of main concepts covered in Weeks 1 – 5

Saul Alinsky

· Alinsky came up with the idea of power analysis, which looks at relationships built on self-interest between corporations, banks and utilities
· Alinsky championed new ways to organize the poor and powerless that created a backyard revolution in cities across America
· Founder of modern community organizing
The political practice of organizing communities to act in self interest





Alinsky's twelve rules of power
1. Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have.
2. Never go outside the experience of your people.
3. Wherever possible go outside of the experience of the enemy.
4. Make the enemy live up to their own book of rules.
5. Ridicule is man's most potent weapon.
6. A good tactic is one that your people enjoy.
7. A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag.
8. Keep the pressure on.
9. The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself.
10. The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition.
11. If you push a negative hard and deep enough it will break through into its counterside.
12. The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative.

13. Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it.





Bentham’s Panopticon
architectural design for prisons which allowed many to be watched by a few who could not be seen
Live with knowledge that prisoners could be subject to continuous observation
Bentham was a lawyer and social activist with an agenda to improve the lives of the powerless in his culture.
Seeking to improve upon the abhorrent prison conditions that predominated in Britain at the time, Bentham designed the panopticon as the modern model for a rehabilitative prison.
The general idea behind the design is that prisoners are distributed around a centrally located watch tower.
Prisoners were able to view the tower and knew they were being watched (which theoretically should have induced behavioral changes) while the guards surveyed all of the prisoners easily from the tower.
A secondary benefit for the prisoners was an opportunity to be in an isolated environment that provided time for contemplation of the behavior that brought them to prison.



Castells, Manuel
network enterprise model(5):Internal decentralized firms, Multilocations, small/medium firms linked with large firms, Joint ventures and Network of synchronous communication



Characteristics of new economy
Productivity is derived from the application of knowledge
Networking: capacity to assemble information and distribute it in a flexible, adaptable way aided by IT
Highly skilled, mobile labour key resource for any company (temporary workers, shift work, portfolio workers)
Generic versus self programmable labour


Customization (67-68


  • in the network society, citizens, consumers, and working people are increasingly in charge (e.g. facebook - customize your own page)

  • also argued that the customization enabled by network technology is largely superficial, that interactive choices serve primarily to add to the storehouses of data that enable increasingly sophisticated techniques of surveillance and control
*----

Deterritorialization (62-64)
refers to the global (or deterritorialization) nature of new media
never has there been a mass communications system that seems so little contained by territorial space
distance is no longer a determining factor (space vs. place)
economic activity on a global scale --> globalization





Engagement pyramid

Ep.jpg


Fordism and Post-fordism
Fordism is the mass, mechanized, production of standardized goods in a rigid and segmented process. Human labour is reduced to the repetitive execution of specialized, routinized tasks (Network Society, p.10-11) derived from Henry Ford's institution of assembly line car manufacturing. It is characterized by uniformity and less customization.
Post-Fordism involves economies of scope (specialized orders, customization and just-in-time deliveries), variable product types, individual multitasking, limited individual judgment, and so forth (Network Society, p.13). Products are more individualized (for example, Dell Computers)


Foucault, Michel
Panopticon, a single guard can watch over many prisoners while the guard remains unseen
The dark dungeon of pre-modernity has been replaced with the bright modern prison, but Foucault cautions that "visibility is a trap"
It is through this visibility, Foucault writes, that modern society exercises its controlling systems of power and knowledge (terms which Foucault believed to be so fundamentally connected that he often combined them in a single hyphenated concept, "power-knowledge")
Increasing visibility leads to power located on an increasingly individualized level, shown by the possibility for institutions to track individuals throughout their lives. Foucault suggests that a "carceral continuum" runs through modern society, from the maximum security prison, through secure accommodation, probation, social workers, police, and teachers, to our everyday working and domestic lives. All are connected by the (witting or unwitting) supervision (surveillance, application of norms of acceptable behaviour) of some humans by others



Information society
The replacement of the "production of 'material values' with the mass production and circulation of 'information values'...yielding increased leisure and new information-based industries." (Barney, The Network Society, p.7)



Instrumentalism
technologies are neutral tools. Also, outcomes depend on how technologies are used
Outcome depends on how technologies are used.
We use technology to achieve more effectively ends that we deem worthwhile.


Interactivity
all human communication involoves interaction between people. it also refers to the capacity of digital communications media to enable a high degree of intervention and choice by users conversing the manner in which they receive information (Barney, The network society page 64)
- includes e-mail, discussion lists, chat rooms, multiple-user domains, online gaming, etc
- network communications enable a high degree of intervention and choice by users concerning the manner in which they receive information
- maybe the most important example of this kind of interactivity is hypertext (the coding of WWW pages that enables users to navigate through, across and between documents at their discretion, in ways not always intended by the publishers of that information).





Attributes of the network society
is a society in which a combination of social and media networks shapes its prime mode of organization and most important structures at all levels (individual, organizational and societal). This type of society can be compared to a mass society that is shaped by groups, organizations and communities ('masses') organized in physical co-presence.


Open creative communities
Community: any group of individuals who interact and share some common
characteristics

Open: no artificial barriers to entry; membership comes from creative
citizenship, both professional and amateur

Creative: production of ideas and inventions that are personal, original and

meaningful


Post-industrialism & critiques of post-industrial thesis

Postmodernism
a late 20th century stream of social philosophy that attempts to describe a condition or state of being, while radically undermining traditional notions of the constitution of truth and reality. (p. 16)



Restructuring of work and employment in new economy
- From jobs available to work available
- From job security to work security
- From postsecondary education to life long learning
- From career path of climbing ladder to spiral or lateral paths
- From specialization to multi- skilling
- From hierarchical to flatter organizations
- Fewer full time jobs; more contracts, temporary, part-time opportunities
- Expanded team work; more responsibility and accountability at all levels
- More self directed job seekers selling services on job to job basis
- Performance pay; softening in salaries
- Expectation that employees will relocate; more global work environments



Richard Florida’s creative class
An emergent class in the work force consisting of knowledge workers, intellectuals, and various types of artists.
  • paid to create
  • attatched to "creative habitats"
  • share "creative ethos"
  • driving future prosperity


Social constructivism (39-43)
Impacts of technology depending on social relations and local conditions that support the technology. Possibility of many different kinds of impacts depending on social interactions.





Social shaping perspective
technologies are continuously remade by what users do with them. New media technologies both shape and are shaped by their social economic and cultural contexts.



Sources of surveillance data

Banks & data marketers collect data from transactions & web surfing
Retailers collect data on every transaction
Government agencies collect data from tax returns, property tax records & voting records
Employer records including keylogging software for all computers connected to a company network (on/off site; wired/wireless)
University networks use keylogging software
Internet surfing records kept by your ISP
Public records
Public private video cameras
Bentham’s Panopticon
a prison design based on the theory of observing without being observed. In this case, the guards being the observers and the prisoners being the observed.


Substantivism
technology embodies specific values & ways of being in the world.
Individual devices may be neutral to their end usage, but technology in general encourages and enforces a particular way of being in the world.



Taylorism
is the process of finding ways to improve and the efficiency of worker activity and workshop organization based upon scientific studies of human efficiency and incentive systems; for example, the flattening of hierarchies and limited decentralization of decision-making (Network Society, p.13). To assure socially approved conditions of work by creating higher standard of living to workers.



Technological determinism
How technology has an overwhelming power to drive human interaction and social change. (Western view); technological determinist s isolate the technology factor and they don't think you can stop/reverse it (Benick, Lecture, Jan. 22nd, 2009)



Time space compression (page61-62)
New Media make the passage of time and physical distance of space seem shorter
- this is a distinct mark of postmodernity
- time is erased in the new communication system
- places exist primarily as point of origins to move to other destinations
- only those who have access to these new media technologies are qualifies for membership into the network society



Web 1.0 and 2.0
Web 1.0
Information based. Where books, music, news were moved into digital format. Such as AOL, geocities, netscape.
The term "Web 2.0" describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity, communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web culture communities and hosted services, such as social-networking sites, video sharing sites, wikis and blogs. It encapsulates the idea of the proliferation of inter-connectivity and interactivity of web-delivered content. Examples include Facebook, eBay, wikipedia, craiglist, Flickr etc.



Webster, Frank **
Is a faculty member in school of social sciences of oxford brookes university who wrote What Information Society? the online reading from week one. in it Frank Webster argues that there has been 5 ways in which people have attempted to justify the use of the term information society; these are technological, economic, occupational, spatial, and cultural, each of which we find unsatisfactory in that they fail to put us under the title accurately.
.